The references below include the most important discoveries to date in strengths research. Please help us to develop our Strengths Research Library by sending us your white papers, dissertations, and publications on strengths development and its related outcomes. Email them to firstname.lastname@example.org.
Anderson, E. C. (2000, February). Affirming students’ strengths in the critical years. Paper presented at the National Conference on the First Year Experience, Columbia, SC.
Anderson, E. C. (2003). StrengthsQuest: Curriculum outline and learning activities. Princeton, NJ: The Gallup Organization.
Anderson, E. C. (2004). What is strengths-based education?: A tentative answer by someone who strives to be a strengths-based educator. Unpublished manuscript.
Anderson, E. C. (2005). Strengths-based educating: A concrete way to bring out the best in students—and yourself. Educational Horizons, 83(3), 180-189.
Anderson, E. C., Cave, S., & McDowell, S. (2001, October). Why become strengths-based? An academic and theological context for strengths programming. Paper presented at Eastern College, National Conference on Identifying and Developing Student Strengths, St. Davids, PA.
Anderson, E. C., Schreiner, L. A., & Shahbaz, P. (2003). Research and evaluation of strengths counselors in a New Beginnings course. Unpublished raw data, Azusa Pacific University, Azusa, CA.
Anderson, E. C., Schreiner, L. A., & Shahbaz, P. (2004). Research and evaluation of strengths counselors in a New Beginnings course. Unpublished raw data, Azusa Pacific University, Azusa, CA.
Aspinwall, L. G., & Staudinger, U. M. (2003). A psychology of human strengths: Some central issues of an emerging field. In L. G. Aspinwall & U. M. Staudinger (Eds.), A psychology of human strengths: Fundamental questions and future directions for a positive psychology (pp. 9-22). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Austin, D. B. (2004). Indicators of Academic Achievement Questionnaire. Unpublished instrument.
Austin, D. B. (2005). The effects of a strengths development intervention program upon the self-perceptions of students’ academic abilities. Dissertation Abstracts International, 66(05A), 1631-1772. (UMI No. AAT3175080)
Blackwell, L. S., Trzesniewski, K. H., & Dweck, C. S. (2007). Implicit theories of intelligence predict achievement across an adolescent transition: A longitudinal study and an intervention. Child Development, 78(1), 246-263.
Bowers, K. M. and Lopez, S. J. (2010). Capitalizing on Personal Strengths in College. Journal of College and Character, Vol 11, Issue 1
Braskamp, L. A., & Ory, J. C. (1994). Assessing faculty work: Enhancing individual and institutional performance. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Brodersen, D. (2008). Predictors of peer leader success as strengths counselors in a first-year seminar. Dissertation Abstracts International, 69(03A), 890-1131. (UMI No. AAT3308536).
Buchanon, T., Johnson, J. A., & Goldberg, L. R. (2005). Implementing a five-factor personality inventory for use on the internet. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 21(2), 115-127.
Buckingham, M. (2007). Go put your strengths to work. New York: The Free Press.
Buckingham, M., & Clifton, D. O. (2001). Now, discover your strengths. New York: The Free Press.
Cameron, K. S., Dutton, J. E., & Quinn, R. E. (Eds.). (2003). Positive organizational scholarship: Foundations of a new discipline. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler.
Cantwell, L. (2005). A comparative analysis of strengths-based versus traditional teaching methods in a freshman public speaking course: Impacts on student learning and engagement. Dissertation Abstracts International, 67(02A), 478-700. (UMI No. AAT3207574)
Cave, S. L. R. (2003). The effects of strengths education on the academic motivation of first-year college students. Dissertation Abstracts International, 64(02A), 417-570. (UMI No. AAT3082036)
Clifton, D. O. (1997). The Self-Reflection Scale. Princeton, NJ: The Gallup Organization.
Clifton, D. O., & Anderson, C. E. (2002). StrengthsQuest: Discover and develop your strengths in academics, career, and beyond. Washington, DC: The Gallup Organization.
Clifton, D. O., Anderson, C. E., & Schreiner, L. A. (2006). StrengthsQuest: Discover and develop your strengths in academics, career, and beyond (2nd ed.). New York: Gallup Press.
Clifton, D. O., & Harter, J. K. (2003). Investing in strengths. In K. S. Cameron, J. E. Dutton, & R. E. Quinn (Eds.), Positive organizational scholarship (pp. 111-121). San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler.
Clifton, D. O., & Nelson, P. (1992). Soar with your strengths. New York: Dell.
Cokley, K. O., Bernard, N., & Cunningham, D. (2001, July). A psychometric investigation of the AMS using a United States sample. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling Development, 34(2), 109-119.
Covington, M. V. (2000). Goal theory, motivation, and school achievement: An integrative review. Annual Review of Psychology, 51, 171-200.
Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). Flow: The psychology of optimal experience. New York: HarperCollins.
Drucker, P. (2000). Managing knowledge means managing oneself. Leader to Leader, 16, 8-10.
Dweck, C. S., & Leggett, E. L. (1988). A social-cognitive approach to motivation and personality. Psychological Review, 95(2), 256-273.
Dweck, C. S., & Molden, D. C. (2005). Self-theories: Their impact on competence motivation and acquisition. In A. J. Elliott & C. S. Dweck (Eds.), Handbook of competence and motivation (pp. 122-140). New York: Guilford.
Elliot, A. J., McGregor, H. A., & Gable, S. L. (1999). Achievement goals, study strategies, and exam performance: A meditational analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91(3), 549-563.
Elliott, E. S., & Dweck, C. S. (1988). Goals: An approach to motivation and achievement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 5-12.
Estévez, E. F. (2005). The role of strengths-based case management strategies in the promotion of social capital and academic success of underprepared students. Dissertation Abstracts International, 66(08A), 2852-2975. (UMI No. AAT3185052)
Frey, D., Jonas, E., & Greitemeyer, T. (2003). Intervention as a major tool of a psychology of human strengths: Examples from organizational change and innovation. In L. G. Aspinwall & U. M. Staudinger (Eds.), A psychology of human strengths: Fundamental questions and future directions for a positive psychology (pp. 149-164). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Gallup Organization. (1999). Clifton StrengthsFinder. Washington, DC: Author.
Gallup Organization. (2003). Teaching and leading with individualization. June 26, 2007
Gillum, W. M. (2005). The effects of strengths instruction on under-performing high school students in mathematics. Dissertation Abstracts International, 66(01A), 86-238. (UMI No. AAT3185052)
Hall, N. C., Perry, R. P., Ruthig, J. C., Hladkyj, S., & Chipperfield, J. G. (2006). Primary and secondary control in achievement settings: A longitudinal field study of academic motivation, emotions, and performance. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 36, 1430-1470.
Hodges, T. D., & Clifton, D. O. (2004). Strengths-based development in practice. In P. A. Linley & S. Joseph (Eds.), International handbook of positive psychology in practice: From research to application (pp. 256-268). New York: Wiley.
Hong, Y., Chiu, C., & Dweck, C. S. (1995). Implicit theories of intelligence: Reconsidering the role of confidence in achievement motivation. In M. H. Kernis (Ed.), Efficacy, agency, and self-esteem (pp. 197-216). New York: Plenum.
Ianni, Phillip; Hart, Kenneth; Carey, Tyler . (June 2011). Abstract,Students Who Frequently Use Their Signature Strengths Earn Higher Marks, but this Effect Depends on
the Level of Strengths-Course Fit. University of Windsor, University of Victoria.
Janowski, K. (2006). A theory of capitalizing on personal strengths. Dissertation Abstracts International, 67(04A). (UMI No. AAT3215161).
Kuh, G.D. , Kinzie, J., Schuh, J. H., Whitt, E. J., & Associates. (2005). Student success in college: Creating conditions that matter. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Levy, S. R., Stroessner, S. J., & Dweck, C. S. (1998). Stereotype formation and endorsement: The role of implicit theories. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 1421-1436.
Liesveld, R., & Miller, J. A. (2005). Teach with your strengths: How great teachers inspire their students. New York: Gallup Press.
Lincoln, Y., & Guba, E. (1985). Naturalistic inquiry. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Linley, P. A., & Joseph, S. (Eds.). (2004). Positive psychology in practice. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Lopez, S. J., Hodges, T., & Harter, J. (2005). The Clifton StrengthsFinder technical report: Development and validation. Princeton, NJ: The Gallup Organization.
Lopez, S. J., Janowski, K. M., & Wells, K. J. (2005). Developing strengths in college students: Exploring programs, context, theories, and research. Lawrence: University of Kansas.
Lopez, S. J. and Louis, M. O. (April 2009). The Principles of Strengths-Based Education. Journal of College & Character. Volume X, No. 4.
Lopez, S. J. and Schmid, K. L. (June 2011). Positive Pathways to Adulthood. Tufts University and Gallup and Clifton Strengths School.
Louis, M. C. (2008). A comparative analysis of the effectiveness of strengths-based curricula in promoting first-year college student success. Dissertation Abstracts International, 69(06A). (UMI No. AAT 3321378).
Morreale, S. P., Moore, M. R., Taylor, K. P., Surges-Tatum, D., & Hulbert-Johnson, R. (1993). The competent speaker speech evaluation form. Annandale, VA: Speech Communication Association.
Pascarella, E. T. (2006). How college affects students: Ten directions for future research. Journal of College Student Development, 47, 508-520.
Pascarella, E. T., & Terenzini, P. T. (2005). How college affects students: A third decade of research (Vol. 2). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Perry, R. P., Hladkyj, S., Pekrun, R., & Pelletier, S. (2001). Academic control and action control in the achievement of college students: A longitudinal field study. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93, 776-789.
Peterson, C., & Seligman, M. (2004). Character strengths and virtues: A handbook and classification. New York: Oxford University Press; Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Pritchard, G. M. (2009). A grounded theory of the factors that mediate the effect of a strengths-based educational intervention over a four month period. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Azusa Pacific University, Azusa, CA.
Purnell School. (2007). The Affinities Program: Discovering strengths in girls for whom success has been elusive. Retrieved April 16, 2007, from http://www.purnell.org/page/why_ <http://www.purnell.org/page/why_> purnell/affinities_program
Rath, T., & Clifton, D. O. (2004). How full is your bucket?: Positive strategies for work and life. New York: Gallup Press.
Robins, R. W., & Pals, J. L. (2002). Implicit self-theories in the academic domain: Implications for goal orientation, attributions, affect, and self-esteem change. Self and Identity, 1, 313-336.
Robles, A. M. (2008). The perceptions of strengths-based play, team cohesion, relational capacity, and group dynamics: Voices of elite athletes. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Azusa Pacific University, Azusa, CA.
Saleebey, D. (1997). The strengths approach to practice. In D. Saleebey (Ed.), The strengths perspective in social work practice (2nd ed., pp. 49-57). New York: Longman.
Saleebey, D. (2001). Human behavior and social environments: A biopsychosocial approach. New York: Columbia University Press.
Saleebey, D. (2006). Introduction: Power in the people. In D. Saleebey (Ed.), The strengths perspective in social work practice (4th ed., pp. 1-24). Boston: Pearson.
Schreiner, L. A. (2004a). Affirming students’ strengths: A campus-wide approach to student success and retention (Report to the Fund for the Improvement of Post-Secondary Education P116B00306). Washington, DC: U. S. Department of Education.
Schreiner, L. A. (2004b). Academic Engagement Index. Unpublished instrument.
Schreiner, L. A., & Anderson, E. C. (2005). Strengths-based advising: A new lens for higher education. NACADA Journal, 25(2), 20-27.
Schreiner, L. A., Hulme, E., Hetzel, R., & Lopez, S. (2007). Positive psychology on campus. Unpublished manuscript.
Shushok, F., & Hulme, E. (2006, September-October). What’s right with you: Helping students find and use their personal strengths. About Campus, 11(4), 2-8.
Snyder, C. R., Sympson, S. C., Ybasco, F. C., Borders, T. F., Babyak, M. A., & Higgins, R. L. (1996). Development and validation of the state Hope Scale. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 321-335.
Stebleton, M and Jehangir, R. (2010, April). Engagement for All: The First-Year Experience Program at the University of Minnesota’s College of Education and Human Development. Minneapolis, MN. Link available: http://www.naspa.org/pubs/mags/nr/default.cfm
Strauss, A. & Corbin, J. (1998). Basics of qualitative research: Grounded theory procedures and techniques. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Swanson, J. E. (2006). Success in the first year: Impact of alternative advising on students at a liberal arts college. Dissertation Abstracts International. (UMI No. AAT 3246327)
Turner, J. L. (2004). StrengthsQuest counseling applied to high school freshmen. Los Angeles: CASP Scientist-Practitioner Grant.
Vallerand, R. J., Blais, M., Briere, N. M., & Pelletier, L. G. (1989). Construction et validation de l’Eschelle de Motivation en Education. Revue Canadienne Sciences du Comportement, 21, 323-349.
Vallerand, R. J., Pelletier, L. G., Blais, M. R., Briere, N. M., Senecal, C., & Vallerand, E. F. (1992). The Academic Motivation Scale: A measure of intrinsic, extrinsic, and amotivation in education. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 52, 1003-1017.
Williamson, J. S. (2002). Assessing student strengths: Academic performance and persistence of first-time college students at a private church-affiliated college. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Sarasota, New York.
Winseman, A. L., Clifton, D. O., & Liesveld, C. (2004). Living your strengths: Discover your God-given talents and inspire your community (2nd ed.). New York: Gallup Press.
Pi Lamda Theta. (Spring 2005). Educational Horizons: Special Issue on Strengths Teaching. Volume 83: No. 3. http://www.pilambda.org/horizons/v83-3/v83-3.pdf
Pi Lamda Theta (Spring 2006). Educational Horizons: Selected Articles on Strengths in Education. Volume 84, No. 3. http://www.pilambda.org/horizons/v84-3/v84-3.pdf
• Strengths Research
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• Clifton StrengthsFinder Assessment
• StrengthsQuest for High School/College Students
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